timedAutomaton.ml 44.6 KB
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open Common
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open Batteries.Printf
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open Dbm
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open Uta

module type TIMED_AUTOMATON =
sig
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  module MDbm : BIG_IDBM
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  type timed_automaton
  type discrete_state
  type transition
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  type edge
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  module DS : Hashtbl.HashedType with type t = discrete_state

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  val clocks : timed_automaton -> string VarContext.t
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  val is_state_equal : discrete_state -> discrete_state -> bool
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  val initial_discrete_state : timed_automaton -> discrete_state
  (* does it belong here? If so, so does type for extended_state... *)
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  val initial_extended_state : timed_automaton -> discrete_state * MDbm.Dbm.t
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  val transitions_from : timed_automaton -> discrete_state ->
    (discrete_state * UDbm.Dbm.t * ((clock_t * int) list) * discrete_state) list
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  val transition_fields : timed_automaton -> transition ->
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    (discrete_state * UDbm.Dbm.t * ((clock_t * int) list) * discrete_state)
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  val guard_of_transition : timed_automaton -> transition -> UDbm.Dbm.t
  val invariant_of_discrete_state : timed_automaton -> discrete_state -> UDbm.Dbm.t
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  val is_urgent_or_committed : timed_automaton -> discrete_state -> bool
  val is_target : timed_automaton -> discrete_state -> bool
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  val lu_bounds : timed_automaton -> discrete_state -> Udbml.Carray.t * Udbml.Carray.t
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  val m_bounds : timed_automaton -> discrete_state -> Udbml.Carray.t
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  val global_m_bounds : timed_automaton -> int array
  val global_m_invariant : timed_automaton -> UDbm.Dbm.t
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  (** print functions *)
  val print_discrete_state  : 'b BatIO.output -> timed_automaton -> discrete_state -> unit
  val print_transition : 'b BatIO.output -> timed_automaton -> transition -> unit
  val print_timed_automaton : 'b BatIO.output -> timed_automaton -> unit
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  val print_extended_state : 'b BatIO.output -> timed_automaton -> (discrete_state * MDbm.Dbm.t) -> unit
  val from_file : string -> string -> ?scale:int -> ?enlarge:int -> unit -> timed_automaton
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end

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module MBoundedAutomaton (TA : TIMED_AUTOMATON) =
struct
  include TA

  let bounding_transitions ta state=
    let n = VarContext.size (TA.clocks ta) in
    let m = TA.global_m_bounds ta in
    let rec build_list cl accu =
      if (cl = n) then accu
      else
        let guard = Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.create n in
        Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.set_init guard;
        Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.constrain guard (0, cl, (-m.(cl)-2, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK));
        Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.constrain guard (cl, 0, (m.(cl)+2, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK));
        assert(not(Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.is_empty guard));
        build_list (cl+1) ((state, guard, [(cl, m.(cl)+1)], state)::accu)
    in 
    build_list 1 []

  let transitions_from ta state =
    List.rev_append (TA.transitions_from ta state) (bounding_transitions ta state)

  let invariant_of_discrete_state ta state =
    let inv = TA.invariant_of_discrete_state ta state in
    let n = VarContext.size (TA.clocks ta) in
    let m = TA.global_m_bounds ta in
    for cl = 0 to n-1 do
      Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.constrain inv (cl, 0, (m.(cl) + 2, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK))
    done;
    assert(not(Dbm.UDbm.Dbm.is_empty inv));
    inv
    
end

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module type TIMED_GAME = 
sig
  include TIMED_AUTOMATON
  
  (* I am not convinced it is the better interface *)
  val is_controllable : timed_automaton -> edge -> bool
end

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module GenericUAutomaton (BDbm : BIG_IDBM) =
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struct
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  module MDbm = BDbm
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  module Dbm = BDbm.Dbm
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  (** In contrast with Uta.expression used in the parser, the variables here are indexed
   *  by unique integer identifiers.
   *)
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  include Querybuilder
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  (** Expression factory functions, to be registered as callbacks from C *)
  let cb_expression_constant i = Constant i
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  let cb_expression_array arraycont tmp name sons =
    if (VarContext.mem arraycont (Some tmp, name)) then
      let arrayid = VarContext.index_of_var arraycont (Some tmp, name) in
      Array(arrayid, sons)
    else if (VarContext.mem arraycont (None, name)) then
      let arrayid = VarContext.index_of_var arraycont (None, name) in
      Array(arrayid, sons)
    else
      failwith (sprintf "Undefined array <%s>" name)
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  let cb_expression_variable constcont const_values varcont varref ref_variables tmp name =
    (* is it a local constant? *)
    if (VarContext.mem constcont (Some tmp, name)) then
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var constcont (Some tmp, name) in
      Constant(Hashtbl.find const_values varid)
    (* is it a global constant? *)
    else if (VarContext.mem constcont (None, name)) then
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var constcont (None, name) in
      Constant(Hashtbl.find const_values varid)
    (* is it a local variable? *)
    else if (VarContext.mem varcont (Some tmp, name)) then
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var varcont (Some tmp, name) in
      Variable(varid)
    (* is it a global variable? *)
    else if (VarContext.mem varcont (None, name)) then
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var varcont (None, name) in
      Variable(varid)
    (* is it a reference to a (global) variable (a template parameter)? *)
    else if (VarContext.mem varref (Some tmp, name)) then
      let refid = VarContext.index_of_var varref (Some tmp, name) in
      let refname = Hashtbl.find ref_variables refid in
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var varcont (None, refname) in
      Variable(varid)
    else (
      eprintf "Printing final VarContext\n";
      VarContext.iter
        (fun (t,name) ind ->
          let scope = match t with
            | None -> "Global"
            | Some tmp -> sprintf "Local to process # %d" tmp
          in
          eprintf "\t%d <%s> : %s\n" ind name scope
        ) varcont;
      printf "%b\n" (VarContext.mem varcont (Some tmp, name));
      failwith (sprintf "Undefined variable <%s>" name)
    )

  let cb_expression_clock clockcont clockref ref_clocks tmp name =
    (* is it a local clock? *)
    if (VarContext.mem clockcont (Some tmp, name) ) then
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var clockcont (Some tmp,name) in
      Clock(varid)
    (* is it a global clock? *)
    else if (VarContext.mem clockcont (None, name) ) then
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var clockcont (None,name) in
      Clock(varid)
    (* is it a reference to a (global) clock (a template parameter)? *)
    else if (VarContext.mem clockref (Some tmp, name)) then
      let refid = VarContext.index_of_var clockref (Some tmp, name) in
      let refname = Hashtbl.find ref_clocks refid in
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var clockcont (None, refname) in
      Clock(varid)
    else (
      eprintf "Printing final VarContext\n";
      VarContext.iter 
        (fun (t,name) ind ->
            let scope = match t with
              | None -> "Global"
              | Some tmp -> sprintf "Local to process # %d" tmp
            in
            eprintf "\t%d <%s> : %s\n" ind  name scope
        ) clockcont;
      printf "%b\n" (VarContext.mem clockcont (Some tmp, name));
      failwith (sprintf "Undefined clock <%s>" name)
    )

  let cb_expression_sum a b = Sum (a,b)
  let cb_expression_product a b = Product (a,b)
  let cb_expression_substraction a b = Substraction (a,b)
  let cb_expression_division a b = Division (a,b)

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  (** A guard is a conjunction of atomic guards *)
  type guard = atomic_guard list

  (** clocks updates *)
  type update = (int * expression) list

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  type simplechan = 
      SendChan of int
    | RecvChan of int
  

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  type edge = {
    edgeSource : int;
    edgeGuard : guard;
    edgeDiscGuard : guard;
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    edgeReset : (clock_t * int) list;
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    edgeDiscUpdate : update;
    edgeTarget : int;
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    edgeSync : simplechan option;
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    edgeProc : int; (* proc id *)
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    edgeControllable : bool
  }
  and location = {
    locId : int;
    mutable locName : string;
    locCommitted : bool;
    locUrgent : bool;
    locInvar : guard;
    locEdges : edge list;
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    locProc : int; (* proc id *)
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  }
  and process = {
    procName : string;
    procId : int;
    procLocations : location array;
    procInitLoc : int;
  }
  type discrete_state = {
    stateLocs : location array;
    stateVars : int array;
  }

  type transition = InternalTrans of discrete_state * edge
                  | SyncTrans of discrete_state * edge * edge

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  let hash_discrete_state s =
    let tmp = Array.fold_right
      (fun x r -> r + x.locId + 0x9e3779b9 + (r lsl 6) + (r lsr 2))
      s.stateLocs 0
    in Array.fold_right
      (fun x r -> r + x + 0x9e3779b9 + (r lsl 6) + (r lsr 2))
      s.stateVars tmp

  let is_state_equal s t =
    let rec aux_loc a b n =
      if (n < 0) then true else
      if (a.(n).locId = b.(n).locId) then
        if (n > 0) then
          aux_loc a b (n-1)
        else true
      else false
    in
    let rec aux_var a b n =
      if (n < 0) then true else
      if (a.(n) = b.(n)) then
        if (n > 0) then
          aux_var a b (n-1)
        else true
      else false
    in
    (aux_loc s.stateLocs t.stateLocs (Array.length s.stateLocs - 1))
    &&
    (aux_var s.stateVars t.stateVars (Array.length s.stateVars - 1))

  module DS = struct
    type t = discrete_state
    let equal = is_state_equal
    let hash = hash_discrete_state
  end

  module DSHashtbl = Hashtbl.Make(DS)

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  (** A succinct version of the above to be used in hash tables *)
  type _succinct_transition = int array * guard

  module GuardHashtbl = Hashtbl.Make(
    struct
      type t = _succinct_transition

      let equal x y = x = y

      let hash (a,b) =
        Array.fold_right
          (fun x r -> r + x + 0x9e3779b9 + (r lsl 6) + (r lsr 2))
          a (Hashtbl.hash b)
    end
  )
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  (* TODO add a VarContext for array names (and pretty printing) *)
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  type timed_automaton = { 
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    procs : process array; (* forall i: procs.(i).procId = i *)
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    celltoindex : (int * int list, int) Hashtbl.t;
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    clocks : string VarContext.t;
    vars : string VarContext.t;
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    constants : string VarContext.t;
    constvalues : int array;
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    init : discrete_state;
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    query : query;
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    lubounds_tbl : (int array * int array) DSHashtbl.t;
    lubounds_tbl_c : (Udbml.Carray.t * Udbml.Carray.t) DSHashtbl.t;
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    mbounds_tbl_c : Udbml.Carray.t DSHashtbl.t;
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    guards_tbl : UDbm.Dbm.t GuardHashtbl.t;
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    invars_tbl : UDbm.Dbm.t DSHashtbl.t;
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    global_mbounds : int array;
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  }
  

  (********** PRINTING AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS **********)
  let rec string_of_exp ta e = 
    let string_of_exp = string_of_exp ta in
    (function
      | Constant c -> sprintf "%d" c 
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      | Array(aid, indices) -> 
          List.fold_left (fun s x -> sprintf "%s[%s]" s (string_of_exp x)) (string_of_int aid) indices
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      | Variable(id) -> VarContext.var_of_index ta.vars id
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      | ConstVariable(id) -> VarContext.var_of_index ta.constants id
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      | Clock(id) ->  VarContext.var_of_index ta.clocks id
      | Product(e1,e2) ->
        sprintf "%s * %s" (string_of_exp e1)
          (string_of_exp e2)
      | Sum(e1,e2) ->
        sprintf "(%s + %s)" (string_of_exp e1)
          (string_of_exp e2)
      | Division(e1,e2) ->
        sprintf "%s / %s" (string_of_exp e1)
          (string_of_exp e2)
      | Substraction(e1,e2) ->
        sprintf "(%s - %s)" (string_of_exp e1)
          (string_of_exp e2)
    ) e


  let string_of_atomic_guard ta = 
    let string_of_exp = string_of_exp ta in
    function
    |  GuardLeq(v,exp) ->
      sprintf "%s <= %s" (string_of_exp v)(string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardLess(v,exp) ->
      sprintf "%s < %s" (string_of_exp v)(string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardGeq(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s >= %s" (string_of_exp v)(string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardGreater(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s > %s" (string_of_exp v) (string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardEqual(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s == %s" (string_of_exp v) (string_of_exp exp)
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    | GuardNeq(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s != %s" (string_of_exp v) (string_of_exp exp)
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  let xml_string_of_atomic_guard ta = 
    let string_of_exp = string_of_exp ta in       
    function
    |  GuardLeq(v,exp) ->
      sprintf "%s &lt;= %s" (string_of_exp v)(string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardLess(v,exp) ->
      sprintf "%s &lt; %s" (string_of_exp v)(string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardGeq(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s &gt;= %s" (string_of_exp v)(string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardGreater(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s &gt; %s" (string_of_exp v) (string_of_exp exp)
    | GuardEqual(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s == %s" (string_of_exp v) (string_of_exp exp)
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    | GuardNeq(v,exp)->
      sprintf "%s != %s" (string_of_exp v) (string_of_exp exp)
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  let rec string_of_guard ta = 
    function
    | [] -> ""
    | [x] -> string_of_atomic_guard ta x
    | x :: y :: l -> 
      ((string_of_atomic_guard ta x) ^ " && ")
      ^ (string_of_guard ta (y::l))


  let rec xml_string_of_guard ta =
    function
    | [] -> ""
    | [x] -> xml_string_of_atomic_guard ta x
    | x :: y :: l -> 
      ((xml_string_of_atomic_guard ta x) ^ " &amp;&amp; ")
      ^ (xml_string_of_guard ta (y::l))


  let string_of_updates ta ups = 
    let ups_str = 
      List.map (fun (var,exp) -> sprintf "%s = %s" (VarContext.var_of_index ta.vars var) (string_of_exp ta exp)) ups in
    String.concat ", " ups_str

    
  let string_of_state ta state =
    let out = Buffer.create 50 in 
    Array.iter (fun loc -> Buffer.add_string out loc.locName;
                 Buffer.add_string out " ") state.stateLocs;
    if (Array.length state.stateVars > 0 ) then (
      Buffer.add_string out "\n";
      Array.iteri (fun i v ->
          let name = VarContext.index2var ta.vars i in
          Buffer.add_string out (sprintf "%s = %d, " name v)) state.stateVars;
    );
    (*    Buffer.add_string out "\n";*)
    Buffer.contents out

    
  let string_of_edge ta edge = 
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    let proc = ta.procs.(edge.edgeProc) in
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    let resetnames = 
      let out = Buffer.create 100 in
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      List.iter 
        (fun (cl, _) -> 
           let name = VarContext.index2var ta.clocks cl in
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           Buffer.add_string out name; 
           Buffer.add_string out " ") 
        edge.edgeReset;
      Buffer.contents out
    in
    let sync = match edge.edgeSync with 
      |None -> ""
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      |Some(SendChan(c)) -> (string_of_int c)^"!"
      |Some(RecvChan(c)) -> (string_of_int c)^"?"
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    in
    let discguardstr = string_of_guard ta edge.edgeDiscGuard in
    let guardstr = string_of_guard ta edge.edgeGuard in
    sprintf "%s%s -> %s \tDiscGuard: %s \tDiscUpdate: %s \tGuard: %s \tResets:%s \tSync:%s" 
      (if (edge.edgeControllable) then "" else "[E]")
      (proc.procLocations.(edge.edgeSource).locName)
      (proc.procLocations.(edge.edgeTarget).locName)
      discguardstr
      (string_of_updates ta edge.edgeDiscUpdate)
      guardstr
      resetnames
      sync
  (*
    sprintf "Edge:\n Target: %s.%s\n\tDiscGuard: %s\n\tDiscUpdate: %s\n\tGuard: %s\n\tResets:%s\n\tSync:%s\n" 
            proc.procName
            (proc.procLocations.(edge.edgeTarget).locName)
            discguardstr
            (string_of_updates ta edge.edgeDiscUpdate)
            guardstr
            resetnames
            sync
     *)

  
  let string_of_location ta loc =
    let out = Buffer.create 128 in
    let utter = Buffer.add_string out in
    utter (sprintf "Location %d: %s "loc.locId loc.locName);
    if (loc.locCommitted) then
      utter "committed ";
    utter (string_of_guard ta loc.locInvar);
    utter "\n";
    utter (sprintf "Has %d edges:\n" (List.length loc.locEdges));
    let edgestrlist = (List.map (string_of_edge ta) loc.locEdges) in
    utter (String.concat "\n" edgestrlist);
    utter "\n";
    Buffer.contents out


  let string_of_process ta proc = 
    let out = Buffer.create 1000 in
    let utter = Buffer.add_string out in
    utter (sprintf "Process(%d): %s\n"  proc.procId proc.procName);
    Array.iter (fun loc -> utter (string_of_location ta loc)) proc.procLocations;
    utter (sprintf "Initial location id: %d\n" proc.procInitLoc);
    Buffer.contents out


  let string_of_transition ta tr =
    let buf = Buffer.create 128 in
    let out = Buffer.add_string buf in
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    let proc_name e = ta.procs.(e.edgeProc).procName in
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    match tr with 
      InternalTrans(state,e) ->
      out (sprintf "From global state: %s\n" (string_of_state ta state));
      out (string_of_edge ta e);
      Buffer.contents buf
    | SyncTrans(state,e1,e2) ->
      out (sprintf "Synchronized Transition btw Processes: %s - %s\n Source: %s\n" (proc_name e1) (proc_name e2)
             (string_of_state ta state));
      out "Sync:\n";
      out (string_of_edge ta e1);
      out "\n";
      out (string_of_edge ta e2);
      Buffer.contents buf


  (********** OTHER AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS **********)
    
  let rec eval_disc_exp ta vars exp =
    try
      let k = 
        (match exp with
         | Constant c -> c
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         | ConstVariable(id) ->
           if ( id < 0 || id >= Array.length ta.constvalues ) then
             failwith (sprintf "Const var index %d out of bounds (%d)" id (Array.length ta.constvalues));
           ta.constvalues.(id)
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         | Variable(id) -> 
           if ( id < 0 || id >= Array.length vars ) then
             failwith (sprintf "Var index %d out of bounds (%d)" id (Array.length vars));
           vars.(id)
         | Clock(id) ->raise Found
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         | Array(arrayId, l) -> 
             let indices = List.map (fun x -> eval_disc_exp ta vars x) l in
             let cellindex = Hashtbl.find ta.celltoindex (arrayId, indices) in
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             eval_disc_exp ta vars (ConstVariable cellindex)
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         | Product(e1,e2) -> (eval_disc_exp ta vars e1) * (eval_disc_exp ta vars e2)
         | Sum(e1,e2) -> (eval_disc_exp ta vars e1) + (eval_disc_exp ta vars e2)
         | Division(e1,e2) -> (eval_disc_exp ta vars e1) / (eval_disc_exp ta vars e2)
         | Substraction(e1,e2) -> (eval_disc_exp ta vars e1) - (eval_disc_exp ta vars e2)
        ) in
      (*
      eprintf "%s -----> %d\n" (string_of_exp ta exp) k;
       *)
      k
    with Found ->
      failwith ("Discrete expression contains clock: " ^ (string_of_exp ta exp)); 
       | e -> raise e

       
  let source_location_of_edge ta edge =
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    ta.procs.(edge.edgeProc).procLocations.(edge.edgeSource)
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  let eval_disc_guard ta state guard =
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    let rec aux_eval t v = function
      | [] -> true
      | GuardLeq(e1,e2) :: l ->
          if (    (eval_disc_exp t v e1)
              <=  (eval_disc_exp t v e2)) then
                aux_eval t v l
          else
            false
      | GuardLess(e1,e2) :: l ->
          if (    (eval_disc_exp t v e1)
              <   (eval_disc_exp t v e2)) then
                aux_eval t v l
          else
            false
      | GuardGeq(e1,e2) :: l ->
          if (    (eval_disc_exp t v e1)
              >=  (eval_disc_exp t v e2)) then
                aux_eval t v l
          else
            false
      | GuardGreater(e1,e2) :: l ->
          if (    (eval_disc_exp t v e1)
              >   (eval_disc_exp t v e2)) then
                aux_eval t v l
          else
            false
      | GuardEqual(e1,e2) :: l ->
          if (    (eval_disc_exp t v e1)
              =   (eval_disc_exp t v e2)) then
                aux_eval t v l
          else
            false
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      | GuardNeq(e1,e2) :: l ->
          if (    (eval_disc_exp t v e1)
              <>  (eval_disc_exp t v e2)) then
                aux_eval t v l
          else
            false
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    in aux_eval ta state.stateVars guard
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  let _guard_to_dbm ta state g =
    let nclocks = VarContext.size ta.clocks in
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    let dbm = UDbm.Dbm.create nclocks in
    UDbm.Dbm.set_init dbm;
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    let aux = function
      | GuardLeq(Clock(c), e) ->
          let k = eval_disc_exp ta state e in
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          UDbm.Dbm.constrain dbm (c, 0, (k, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK))
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      | GuardLess(Clock(c), e) ->
        let k = eval_disc_exp ta state e in
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        UDbm.Dbm.constrain dbm (c, 0, (k, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_STRICT))
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      | GuardGeq(Clock(c), e) ->
        let k = eval_disc_exp ta state e in
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        UDbm.Dbm.constrain dbm (0, c, (-k, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK))
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      | GuardGreater(Clock(c), e) ->
        let k = eval_disc_exp ta state e in
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        UDbm.Dbm.constrain dbm (0, c, (-k, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_STRICT))
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      | GuardEqual(Clock(c), e) ->
        let k = eval_disc_exp ta state e in
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        UDbm.Dbm.constrain dbm (0, c, (-k, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK));
        UDbm.Dbm.constrain dbm (c, 0, (k, Udbml.Basic_types.DBM_WEAK))
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      | _ as e -> failwith (sprintf "Bad Guard: %s" (string_of_guard ta [e]))
    in
    List.iter aux g;
    dbm


  let is_committed state =
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    let rec aux ar n =
      if (ar.(n).locCommitted) then true
      else if (n > 0) then
        aux ar (n-1)
      else false
    in aux state.stateLocs (Array.length state.stateLocs - 1)
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  let _copy_state state = 
    { stateVars = Array.copy state.stateVars;
      stateLocs = Array.copy state.stateLocs}


  (** Apply discrete update of edge to state, result written in state' *)
  let _apply_edge ta state edge state' =
    let aux = fun (id,e) -> 
      state'.stateVars.(id) <- eval_disc_exp ta state.stateVars e
    in
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    state'.stateLocs.(edge.edgeProc) <- ta.procs.(edge.edgeProc).procLocations.(edge.edgeTarget);
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    List.iter aux edge.edgeDiscUpdate



  (********** TIMED_AUTOMATON interface **********)
  let clocks ta = ta.clocks

  let initial_discrete_state ta = ta.init

  let invariant_of_discrete_state ta state =
    try
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      DSHashtbl.find ta.invars_tbl state
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    with Not_found ->
      let glob_inv =
        Array.fold_left (fun acc loc -> loc.locInvar @ acc ) [] state.stateLocs in
      let inv = _guard_to_dbm ta state.stateVars glob_inv in
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      DSHashtbl.add ta.invars_tbl state inv;
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      inv
       | _ as e -> raise e

  let initial_extended_state ta =
    let dim = (VarContext.size (clocks ta)) in
    let z = Dbm.create dim in
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    Dbm.set_zero z;
    (ta.init, z)
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  let _transitions_from ta state = 
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    let committed = is_committed state in
    let transq = Queue.create () in
    (* Queue of synchronizing edges *)
    let rchan = Queue.create () in
    let schan = Queue.create () in
    let nproc = Array.length ta.procs in
    for i = 0 to nproc - 1 do
      let loc = state.stateLocs.(i) in
      let add_single = not committed || loc.locCommitted in
      List.iter
        (fun edge ->
          if (eval_disc_guard ta state edge.edgeDiscGuard) then
            (match edge.edgeSync with
              | Some (SendChan(c)) ->
                  Queue.add (c, edge) schan
              | Some (RecvChan(c)) ->
                  Queue.add (c, edge) rchan
              | None ->
                  if (add_single) then
                    Queue.add (InternalTrans (state, edge)) transq
            )
        ) loc.locEdges
    done;
    Queue.iter
      (fun (rname, redge) ->
        Queue.iter
          (fun (sname, sedge) ->
            (* Sync if same channels are used by different processes *)
            if (rname = sname && redge.edgeProc <> sedge.edgeProc) then (
              (* and if state not committed or one of the participating states is *)
              let sloc = source_location_of_edge ta sedge in
              let rloc = source_location_of_edge ta redge in
              if (not committed || sloc.locCommitted || rloc.locCommitted) then
                Queue.add (SyncTrans (state, redge, sedge)) transq
            )
          ) schan
      ) rchan;
    Queue.fold (fun l tr -> tr :: l) [] transq

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  let guard_of_transition ta tr = 
    let to_succinct = function
      |InternalTrans(s,e) -> (s.stateVars,e.edgeGuard)
      |SyncTrans(s,e1,e2) -> (s.stateVars,List.rev_append e1.edgeGuard e2.edgeGuard)
    in
    let (vars,succ_guard) as str = to_succinct tr in
    try 
      GuardHashtbl.find ta.guards_tbl str
    with Not_found ->
      let g = _guard_to_dbm ta vars succ_guard in
      GuardHashtbl.add ta.guards_tbl str g;
      g
      | _ as e -> raise e

  let transition_fields ta tr = match tr with
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    | InternalTrans(state, e) ->
        let state' = _copy_state state in
        _apply_edge ta state e state';
        (state,
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         guard_of_transition ta tr,
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         e.edgeReset,
         state')
    | SyncTrans(state, e1, e2) ->
        let state' = _copy_state state in
        _apply_edge ta state e1 state';       
        _apply_edge ta state e2 state';
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        let g = guard_of_transition ta tr in
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        (state, g, e1.edgeReset @ e2.edgeReset, state')
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  let transitions_from ta state =
    List.map (fun tr -> transition_fields ta tr) (_transitions_from ta state)

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  let is_urgent_or_committed ta state =
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    let rec aux ar n =
      if (ar.(n).locCommitted || ar.(n).locUrgent) then true
      else if (n > 0) then
        aux ar (n-1)
      else false
    in aux state.stateLocs (Array.length state.stateLocs - 1)
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  let is_target ta state =
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    let rec eval_query = function
      | EmptyQuery -> true
      | QueryAnd(l,r) -> (eval_query l) && (eval_query r)
      | QueryOr(l,r) -> (eval_query l) || (eval_query r)
      | Location(procId,locId) -> state.stateLocs.(procId).locId = locId
      | Atomic(ag) -> eval_disc_guard ta state [ag]
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    in
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    eval_query ta.query
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  let lu_bounds ta state =
    try
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      DSHashtbl.find ta.lubounds_tbl_c state
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    with Not_found ->
      let nclocks = VarContext.size ta.clocks in
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      let lower,upper = DSHashtbl.find ta.lubounds_tbl state in
      let lar,uar = (Udbml.Carray.to_c lower nclocks, Udbml.Carray.to_c upper nclocks) in
      DSHashtbl.add ta.lubounds_tbl_c state (lar,uar);
      (lar,uar)
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  let m_bounds ta state =
    try
      DSHashtbl.find ta.mbounds_tbl_c state
    with Not_found ->
      let nclocks = VarContext.size ta.clocks in
      let lower,upper = DSHashtbl.find ta.lubounds_tbl state in
      let mbound = Array.make nclocks 0 in
      for cl = 0 to nclocks-1 do
        mbound.(cl) <- max lower.(cl) upper.(cl)
      done;
      let res = Udbml.Carray.to_c mbound nclocks in
      DSHashtbl.add ta.mbounds_tbl_c state res;
      res

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  let global_m_bounds ta =
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    if (ta.global_mbounds.(0) <> 0) then (
      let nclocks = VarContext.size (clocks ta) in
      ta.global_mbounds.(0) <- 0;
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      DSHashtbl.iter (fun _ -> fun (lbound,ubound) ->
        for cl = 0 to nclocks-1 do
          ta.global_mbounds.(cl) <- max ta.global_mbounds.(cl) lbound.(cl);
          ta.global_mbounds.(cl) <- max ta.global_mbounds.(cl) ubound.(cl)
        done) ta.lubounds_tbl;
      Array.iteri (fun cl m ->
        if (m < 0) then
          printf "clock %d (of bound %d) is never read!?\n" cl m) ta.global_mbounds
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    );
    ta.global_mbounds
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  let global_m_invariant ta =
    let marray = global_m_bounds ta in
    let inv_guard = ref [] in
    for i = 0 to (Array.length marray)-1 do
      inv_guard := (GuardLeq (Clock i, Constant marray.(i))) :: !inv_guard
    done;
    _guard_to_dbm ta ta.init.stateVars !inv_guard
    
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  (** print functions *)
  let print_discrete_state chan ta state =
    fprintf chan "%s\n" (string_of_state ta state)
  
  let print_transition chan ta trans = 
    fprintf chan "%s\n" (string_of_transition ta trans)

  let print_timed_automaton chan ta =
    fprintf chan "Timed automaton with %d clocks and %d processes\n"
      (VarContext.size ta.clocks) (Array.length ta.procs);
    Array.iter (fun proc -> fprintf chan "%s\n-----\n" (string_of_process ta proc)) ta.procs
 
  let print_extended_state chan ta (state,dbm) =
    fprintf chan "%s " (string_of_state ta state);
    fprintf chan "%s " (Dbm.to_string dbm)

  (********** LOADING FUNCTIONS **********)
  
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  let _transition_fields ta tr = match tr with
    | InternalTrans(state, e) ->
        let state' = _copy_state state in
        _apply_edge ta state e state';
        (state,
         e.edgeGuard,
         e.edgeReset,
         state')
    | SyncTrans(state, e1, e2) ->
        let state' = _copy_state state in
        _apply_edge ta state e1 state';       
        _apply_edge ta state e2 state';
        (state, e1.edgeGuard @ e2.edgeGuard, e1.edgeReset @ e2.edgeReset, state')

  (* propagate the clocks given in input, and return a set of clocks still
   * worth to propagate
   *)
  let propagate lparent uparent lson uson updates clocks =
    let res = ref ClockSet.empty in
    (* for every element of clocks, check whether to propagate *)
    ClockSet.iter (fun cl ->
      (* a clock does not propagate past an update *)
      if (List.for_all (fun (i,_) -> i <> cl) updates) then
        begin
          (* a clock is worth propagating later on if it propagates here *)
          if (lparent.(cl) < lson.(cl)) then (
            lparent.(cl) <- lson.(cl);
            res := ClockSet.add cl !res
          );
          if (uparent.(cl) < uson.(cl)) then (
            uparent.(cl) <- uson.(cl);
            res := ClockSet.add cl !res
          )
        end) clocks;
    !res

  exception Early_stop

  (** To compute LU (and M) bounds, we first explore the whole discrete
   *  state space.
   *  At each discrete state s, each clock c is given the largest constant
   *  against which it is compared in s.
   *  Then, larger bounds propagate backwards, but not CROSS resets.
   *  The best way to do this (with the retropropagation) is a DFS of the
   *  discrete state space
   *)
  (* TODO by adapting the walk order, the M bounds could be computed on the fly,
   *      while the real state space is being discovered
   *)
  let build_lu ta =
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    let nclocks = VarContext.size ta.clocks in
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    let trace = Stack.create () in
    (* trace is a stack of discrete_state * (transition list) *)
    (* to get a list of transitions from a discrete state, use _transitions_from *)
    let init = initial_discrete_state ta in
    let init_edges = _transitions_from ta init in
    Stack.push (init, init_edges) trace;
    let ltmp, utmp = Array.make nclocks (-Dbm.infty), Array.make nclocks (-Dbm.infty) in
    DSHashtbl.add ta.lubounds_tbl init (ltmp,utmp);
    while (not (Stack.is_empty trace)) do
      let (current, edges) = Stack.top trace in
      match edges with
        | [] -> begin
            (* pop the stack *)
            let _ = Stack.pop trace in
            (* we are done with this state, retropropagation *)
            let son = ref current in
            let clocks = ref ClockSet.empty in
            for cl = 1 to nclocks-1 do clocks := ClockSet.add cl !clocks done;
            (* Do the bound retropropagation *)
            begin
            try
              Stack.iter (fun (parent, edge :: _) ->
                if (ClockSet.is_empty !clocks) then
                  raise Early_stop;
                let lson,uson = DSHashtbl.find ta.lubounds_tbl !son in
                let lparent,uparent = DSHashtbl.find ta.lubounds_tbl parent in
                let (_,_,updates,_) = _transition_fields ta edge in
                clocks := propagate lparent uparent lson uson updates !clocks;
                son := parent
              ) trace;
            with
              | Early_stop -> ()
            end;
            (* get the parent state, its first edge is the one between parent and current *)
            if (not (Stack.is_empty trace)) then (
              let (parent, _::l) = Stack.pop trace in
              (* repush the parent and its remaining edges *)
              Stack.push (parent, l) trace;
            )
        end
        | edge :: rest -> begin
          let (_,guard,updates,succ) = _transition_fields ta edge in
          let (current_lower,current_upper) = DSHashtbl.find ta.lubounds_tbl current in
          (* update the bounds of current thanks to current transition *)
          List.iter (function
            | GuardLeq(Clock(cl),e)
            | GuardLess(Clock(cl),e) ->
                let r = eval_disc_exp ta current.stateVars e in
                current_upper.(cl) <- max current_upper.(cl) r
            | GuardEqual(Clock(cl),e) ->
                let r = eval_disc_exp ta current.stateVars e in
                current_upper.(cl) <- max current_upper.(cl) r;
                current_lower.(cl) <- max current_lower.(cl) r
            | GuardGeq(Clock(cl),e)
            | GuardGreater(Clock(cl),e) ->
                let r = eval_disc_exp ta current.stateVars e in
                current_lower.(cl) <- max current_lower.(cl) r
            | _ -> failwith "cannot compute LU bounds, guard not in normal form")
          guard;

          (* now take care of the succ *)
          if (DSHashtbl.mem ta.lubounds_tbl succ) then
            (* if already discovered, push it on the stack with an empty list of
             * edges in order to have the correct retropropagation *)
            begin
              Stack.push (succ, []) trace
            end
          else
            (* if new, add it to the hashtable and push it on the stack *)
            begin
              let ltmp, utmp = Array.make nclocks (-Dbm.infty), Array.make nclocks (-Dbm.infty) in
              DSHashtbl.add ta.lubounds_tbl succ (ltmp,utmp);
              let succ_edges = _transitions_from ta succ in
              Stack.push (succ, succ_edges) trace
            end
        end
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    done;
    DSHashtbl.iter (fun _ -> fun (lbound,ubound) ->
      for cl=0 to nclocks-1 do
        if (lbound.(cl) < 0) then lbound.(cl) <- 0;
        if (ubound.(cl) < 0) then ubound.(cl) <- 0
      done) ta.lubounds_tbl
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  (** Constructs a timed_automaton from the C data structure produced by the
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   *  library utap.
   *  TODO compared to previous version, this lacks:
     *  parameterization by guard_of_transition
     *  parameterization by invariant_of_discrete_state
     *  scaling
     *  enlarging
   *  This hinders the ability to instantiate to other kinds of automata,
   *  such as enlarged automata
   *)
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  external utap_from_file : string -> string -> timed_automaton = "xta_from_xmlfile";;
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  let build_ta_from_processes clockcont varcont var_init_values arraycells constcont constvalues procs query =
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    (* Fill in the edgeProc and locProc fields in all locations and edges *)
    Array.iter (fun proc -> 
        Array.iter (fun loc -> 
            loc.locName <- proc.procName ^ "." ^ loc.locName;
          ) proc.procLocations
      )
      procs;
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    (* Convert the (template,string) VarContext.t  to string VarContext.t
       by prepending the process names to variables and clocks. 
       We will just extract these elements from the hash tables, along with their indices,
       so as to reinsert them in the same order in the new VarContext.
       These contexts are only for pretty printing and have no role in simulation
    *)
    let get_vc_elements vc = 
      Hashtbl.fold 
        (fun (tmp,name) index acc ->
           let prefix = match tmp with
               None -> ""
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             | Some procId -> procs.(procId).procName  ^ "."
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           in
           let name = sprintf "%s%s" prefix name in
           (index,name) :: acc
        ) (VarContext.get_var2index vc) [] 
    in    
    let clist = List.sort compare (get_vc_elements clockcont) in
    let vlist = List.sort compare (get_vc_elements varcont) in
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    let constlist = List.sort compare (get_vc_elements constcont) in
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    let clocks = VarContext.create () in
    let vars = VarContext.create () in
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    let constants = VarContext.create () in
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    List.iter (fun (_,name) -> VarContext.add clocks name) clist;
    List.iter (fun (_,name) -> VarContext.add vars name) vlist;
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    List.iter (fun (_,name) -> VarContext.add constants name) constlist;
    (* build the array of const values *)
    let nconst = (Hashtbl.length constvalues) in
    let const_val = Array.make nconst 0 in
    for i = 0 to nconst-1 do
      const_val.(i) <- Hashtbl.find constvalues i;
    done;
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    let nvars = (Hashtbl.length var_init_values) in
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    let initLocs = Array.map (fun proc -> proc.procLocations.(proc.procInitLoc)) procs in
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    let initVars = Array.make nvars 0 in
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    for i = 0 to nvars-1 do
      initVars.(i) <- Hashtbl.find var_init_values i;
    done;
    let ta = {
      procs = procs;
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      celltoindex = arraycells;
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      clocks = clocks;
      vars = vars;
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      constants = constants;
      constvalues = const_val;
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      init = {stateLocs = initLocs; stateVars = initVars};
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      query = query;
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      lubounds_tbl = DSHashtbl.create 1024;
      lubounds_tbl_c = DSHashtbl.create 1024;
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      mbounds_tbl_c = DSHashtbl.create 1024;
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      guards_tbl = GuardHashtbl.create 1024;
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      invars_tbl = DSHashtbl.create 1024;
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      global_mbounds = Array.make (VarContext.size clocks) (-Dbm.infty)
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    }
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    in
    build_lu ta;
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    ta
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  let make_ta tafile qfile =
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    (** Variable and clock contexts have initially keys of type (p,name)
     * where p is process option (None for global variables),
     * and name the name of the variable. *)
    let varcont = VarContext.create () in
    let var_init_values = Hashtbl.create 10 in
    let const_values = Hashtbl.create 10 in
    let ref_clocks = Hashtbl.create 10 in
    let ref_variables = Hashtbl.create 10 in
    let clockcont = VarContext.create () in
    let constcont = VarContext.create () in
    let clockref = VarContext.create () in
    let varref = VarContext.create () in
    Callback.register "cb_expression_constant" cb_expression_constant;
    Callback.register "cb_expression_variable"
      (cb_expression_variable constcont const_values varcont varref ref_variables);
    Callback.register "cb_expression_clock"
      (cb_expression_clock clockcont clockref ref_clocks);
    Callback.register "cb_expression_sum" cb_expression_sum;
    Callback.register "cb_expression_product" cb_expression_product;
    Callback.register "cb_expression_substraction" cb_expression_substraction;
    Callback.register "cb_expression_division" cb_expression_division;

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    let arraycont = VarContext.create () in
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    Callback.register "cb_expression_array" (cb_expression_array arraycont);
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    let arraycelltovar = Hashtbl.create 10 in
    let cb_register_global_array_name arrayName =
      VarContext.add arraycont (None, arrayName)
    in
    Callback.register "cb_register_global_array_name" cb_register_global_array_name;
    let cb_register_global_array_cell cellName value =
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      VarContext.add constcont (None, cellName);
      let cellId = VarContext.index_of_var constcont (None, cellName) in
      Hashtbl.add const_values cellId value;
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      let firstLSB = String.index cellName '[' in
      let arrayName = String.sub cellName 0 firstLSB in
      let last = ref (firstLSB+1) in
      let indexes = ref [] in
      let split pos = function
        | '[' -> last := pos+1
        | ']' -> 
            let substr = String.sub cellName !last (pos - !last) in
            indexes := (int_of_string substr) :: !indexes
        | _ -> ()
      in
      String.iteri split cellName;
      (* now `indexes` contains the indexes of the cell in the multidimensional array,
       * in reverse order *)
      let arrayId = VarContext.index_of_var arraycont (None, arrayName) in
      Hashtbl.add arraycelltovar (arrayId, List.rev !indexes) cellId
    in
    Callback.register "cb_register_global_array_cell" cb_register_global_array_cell;

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    let register_constant tmp name value =
      VarContext.add constcont (tmp, name);
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var constcont (tmp, name) in
      Hashtbl.add const_values varid value
    in
    let cb_register_global_constant name value = register_constant None name value in
    let cb_register_constant tmp name value = register_constant (Some tmp) name value in
    Callback.register "cb_register_global_constant" cb_register_global_constant;
    Callback.register "cb_register_constant" cb_register_constant;
    let register_variable tmp name value =
      VarContext.add varcont (tmp, name);
      let varid = VarContext.index_of_var varcont (tmp, name) in
      Hashtbl.add var_init_values varid value
    in
    let cb_register_global_variable name value = register_variable None name value in
    let cb_register_variable tmp name value = register_variable (Some tmp) name value in
    Callback.register "cb_register_global_variable" cb_register_global_variable;
    Callback.register "cb_register_variable" cb_register_variable;
    let cb_register_global_clock name =
      VarContext.add clockcont (None, name)
    in
    Callback.register "cb_register_global_clock" cb_register_global_clock;
    let cb_register_clock name tmp =
      VarContext.add clockcont (Some tmp, name)
    in
    Callback.register "cb_register_clock" cb_register_clock;

    let rec evaluate_expression = function
      | Constant(c) -> c
      | Clock(_) -> failwith "there should not be clocks in evaluated expressions"
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      | Array(_,_) -> failwith "there should not be array accesses in evaluated expressions"
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      | Variable(i) -> Hashtbl.find var_init_values i
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      | ConstVariable(i) -> Hashtbl.find const_values i
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      | Sum(a,b) -> (evaluate_expression a) + (evaluate_expression b)
      | Product(a,b) -> (evaluate_expression a) * (evaluate_expression b)
      | Substraction(a,b) -> (evaluate_expression a) - (evaluate_expression b)
      | Division(a,b) -> (evaluate_expression a) / (evaluate_expression b)
    in
    Callback.register "cb_evaluate_expr" evaluate_expression;
    (** Get discrete guard from mixed guard *)
    let filter_disc_guard g = 
      let rec filt_exp = function
        | Clock(_) -> false
        | Sum(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | Product(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | Substraction(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | Division(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
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        | Array(_, l) -> List.for_all (fun x -> filt_exp x) l
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        | _ -> true
      in
      let filt_ag = function
        | GuardLess(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | GuardLeq(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | GuardGreater(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | GuardGeq(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
        | GuardEqual(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
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        | GuardNeq(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) && (filt_exp y)
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      in
      List.filter filt_ag g
    in
    (** Get clock guard from mixed guard *)
    let filter_clock_guard g = 
      let rec filt_exp = function
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        | Clock(_) -> true
        | Sum(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | Product(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | Substraction(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | Division(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | Array(_, l) -> List.exists (fun x -> filt_exp x) l
        | _ -> false
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      in
      let filt_ag = function
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        | GuardLess(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | GuardLeq(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | GuardGreater(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | GuardGeq(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | GuardEqual(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
        | GuardNeq(x,y) -> (filt_exp x) || (filt_exp y)
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      in
      List.filter filt_ag g
    in
    (* Assign integer identifiers to channels. *)
    let chanids = Hashtbl.create 50 in
    let next_chan_id = ref 0 in
    let chan_to_id s =
      try Hashtbl.find chanids s 
      with Not_found -> (
        incr next_chan_id;
        Hashtbl.add chanids s !next_chan_id;
        !next_chan_id)
    in
    let cb_send_channel name =
      let chanid = chan_to_id name in
      Some(SendChan(chanid))
    in
    let cb_recv_channel name =
      let chanid = chan_to_id name in
      Some(RecvChan(chanid))
    in
    Callback.register "cb_send_channel" cb_send_channel;
    Callback.register "cb_recv_channel" cb_recv_channel;
    let build_edge src dst extGuard extUpdate sync procId control =
      {
        edgeSource = src;
        edgeGuard = filter_clock_guard extGuard;
        edgeDiscGuard = filter_disc_guard extGuard;
        edgeReset = List.map
          (fun (Clock(x),_) -> (x,0))
          (List.filter (function (Clock(_),_) -> true | _ -> false) extUpdate);
        edgeDiscUpdate = List.map
          (fun (Variable(x),e) -> (x,e))
          (List.filter (function (Variable(_),_) -> true | _ -> false) extUpdate);
        edgeTarget = dst;
        edgeSync = sync;
        edgeProc = procId;
        edgeControllable = control;
      }
    in
    Callback.register "cb_build_edge" build_edge;
    let build_location id name committed urgent guard edges procId =
      {
        locId = id;
        locName = name;
        locCommitted = committed;
        locUrgent = urgent;
        locInvar = guard;
        locEdges = edges;
        locProc = procId;
      }
    in
    Callback.register "cb_build_location" build_location;
    let build_process name id locations init =
      {
        procName = name;
        procId = id;
        procLocations = locations;
        procInitLoc = init;
      }
    in
    Callback.register "cb_build_process" build_process;
    let build_location_array n = Array.make n (build_location 0 "" false false [] [] 0) in
    Callback.register "cb_build_location_array" build_location_array;
    let build_process_array n = Array.make n (build_process "" 0 (build_location_array 0) 0) in
    Callback.register "cb_build_process_array" build_process_array;
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    let build_ta procs query = build_ta_from_processes clockcont varcont var_init_values arraycelltovar constcont const_values procs query in
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    Callback.register "cb_build_ta" build_ta;
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    let global_var_index varName =
      try
        VarContext.index_of_var varcont (None,varName)
      with
        | Not_found -> -1
    in
    Callback.register "cb_global_var_index" global_var_index;
    let local_var_index procId varName =
      try
        VarContext.index_of_var varcont (Some procId,varName)
      with
        | Not_found -> -1
    in
    Callback.register "cb_local_var_index" local_var_index;
    utap_from_file tafile qfile
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  let from_file tafile qfile ?scale:(scale=1) ?enlarge:(enlarge=0) () = 
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    let ta = make_ta tafile qfile in
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    ta
  
end